Several rare diseases are caused by abnormal genes carried by the chromosome inside a mitochondrion. A less common condition involves the inability to distinguish green from yellow. These genes are considered sex-linked because their expression and inheritance patterns differ between males and females. Unlike the DNA in the nucleus of cells, the amount of abnormal mitochondrial DNA occasionally varies from cell to cell throughout the body. Girls have two X-chromosomes; to be colorblind they must inherit two defective copies, one from each parent.
People with PKU have a similar problem. This could occur in the two scenarios below. Females have two X chromosomes, and males have an X and a Y. While sex linkage is not the same as genetic linkage , sex-linked genes can be genetically linked see bottom of page. Many X-linked dominant disorders are lethal among affected males. Autosomes come in pairs of homologous chromosomes. Information X-linked recessive diseases most often occur in males. A section of a chromosome that carries instructions for the formation, functioning, and transmission of specific traits from one generation to another. Because females have two copies of X-linked genes, they will not be affected by inheriting of a single recessive mutation on an X-linked gene. In males, recombination between homologous Z chromosomes can make new combinations of color and dilute alleles by chance, some offspring will still receive the same allele combination as the father. Other genetic disorders are associated with the X female or Y male chromosome and are called sex-linked disorders because the X and Y chromosomes are related to sexual characteristics in humans. The disorder has often been associated with royalty. Individuals also can acquire the condition through various eye diseases. By contrast, disorders that can be inherited only by the transmission of genes from both parents is called an autosomal recessive disorder. Virtually everyone with the disorder has parents who both carry a copy of the abnormal gene, even though usually neither parent has the disorder because two copies of the abnormal gene are necessary for the gene to be expressed. Normally, the retina contains molecules capable of detecting every color in the spectrum. The gene involved in the disorder occurs only on the X chromosome, which is passed to the child by the mother. Several rare diseases are caused by abnormal genes carried by the chromosome inside a mitochondrion. These disorders have effects that range from inconvenience to death. However, this is not technically correct. About 1 in 12 blacks carry the gene for this disorder. People with Marfan's syndrome also tend to be stoop-shouldered and have a bluish tint to their eyeballs. In humans and other mammals, the sex chromosomes are X and Y. This disorder is caused by the absence of a protein responsible for the clotting of blood. The female has no Y-chromosome, so women cannot exhibit the trait. All daughters of an affected male are carriers of the abnormal gene.
Video about list of sex linked genetic disorder:
Autosomal Recessive vs. Autosomal Dominance
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