American Journal of Epidemiology A sexual assault involving some type of penetration i. What types of environmental factors encourage alcohol-induced sexual assault? Research on the power of stereotypes, expectancies, and self-fulfilling prophecies demonstrate that when people have an expectation about a situation or another person, they tend to observe and recall primarily the cues that fit their hypothesis and to minimize or ignore the cues that contradict their hypothesis. National Academy Press, Discriminant analysis of risk factors for sexual victimization among a national sample of college women. Among college students, approximately one-half of all rapes are committed by a date. In addition, women are concerned about their increased vulnerability to sexual and nonsexual aggression when intoxicated. A look at expectancies and risks.
For example, 62 percent of the college date rapists interviewed by Kanin felt that they had committed rape because of their alcohol consumption. Furthermore, in laboratory studies, intoxicated men tend to retaliate strongly when they feel threatened, and once they begin behaving aggressively, they can only be stopped with great difficulty Taylor and Chermack Sexual assault perpetration by college men: Rape committed by someone that the victim is dating. A meta-analysis on the moderating effects of inhibitory cues, triggering events, and self-focused attention. A sexual assault involving some type of penetration i. When a man is drinking alcohol, does he miss cues indicating that the woman is not interested in sex or does he simply not care about her feelings? Handbook of Antisocial Behavior. One in 10 high school students has been purposefully hit, slapped or physically hurt by a boyfriend or girlfriend. Thus, when under the influence of alcohol, people have a narrower perceptual field and can attend only to the most obvious i. Alternatively, impulsivity has been linked to both aggression and sexual assault; however, researchers have not yet investigated whether impulsive sexual assault perpetrators respond more aggressively when drinking. Finally, because even the best-constructed prospective interview study allows for alternative causal explanations, further laboratory research also is needed. Both men and women are used to this indirect form of establishing sexual interest and usually manage to make their intentions clear and save face if the other person is not interested Abbey et al. Rape laws vary by State; however, the aforementioned description conforms to the definition used at the Federal level and by most States. Focus on the role of alcohol. At a mini-mum, researchers must acknowledge this problem Martin and Bachman Violent behavior typically begins between the ages of 12 and Rape in which the perpetrator, the victim, or both are under the influence of alcohol at the time of the incident. Being physically or sexually abused makes teen girls six times more likely to become pregnant and twice as likely to get a STI. An act that fits the definition of rape, in terms of the strategies used, but does not result in penetration. Alcohol and sexual aggression in a national sample of college men. For example, if intoxication encourages sexual assault through its effects on cognitive skills, do individual differences in general cognitive functioning relate to alcohol-involved sexual assault perpetration? Journal of Studies on Alcohol The effects of alcohol on aggression appear to be principally pharmacological. It is a project of the National Domestic Violence Hotline. In studies involving two different subject groups i. The full range of forced sexual acts, including forced touching or kissing; verbally coerced intercourse; and vaginal, oral, and anal penetration.
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