For libertarians, marriage legislation of any sort—either the legalization or the prohibition of same-sex marriage—fell outside of the role of government and was unacceptable. Hinduism , without a sole leader or hierarchy , allowed some Hindus to accept the practice while others were virulently opposed. A fourth view, libertarianism , had different premises from queer theory but somewhat similar ramifications; it proposed that government powers should be strictly limited, generally to the tasks of maintaining civil order, infrastructure , and defense. In Uruguay became the first Latin American country to legalize same-sex civil unions nationwide; the legislation became effective the following year. These households, in turn, form the foundation of a productive society—a society in which, albeit incidentally, children, elders, and others who may be relatively powerless are likely to be protected.
Many Americans felt that the Hawaii court decision represented a serious threat to social stability, and in the U. From this perspective, the devaluation of same-sex intimacy is immoral because it constitutes arbitrary and irrational discrimination , thereby damaging the community. Supreme Court building, Washington, D. International In the early 21st century the countries that most seriously penalized same-sex relations tended to be in deeply conservative regions of the world, particularly Islamic theocracies and some parts of Asia and Africa. Sexuality is but one of many areas where religious and civic authority interact; definitions of the purpose of marriage is another. On the other hand, the Netherlands —the first country to grant equal marriage rights to same-sex couples —was religiously diverse , as was Canada , which did so in Whether Egyptian, Vijayanagaran, Roman, Ottoman, Mongol, Chinese, European, or other, empires have long fostered or, in some cases, imposed the widespread adoption of a relatively small number of religious and legal systems. New Zealand became the first country in Oceania to do so. Many countries have yet to reach a consensus on these issues. Among groups who feel strongly that same-sex marriage is problematic, there is also a tendency for the legal relationships of spouses, parents, and children to converge. See also marriage law. Increasingly subjected to new taxes by local politicians trying to close municipal budget deficits, more major industries, including oil, are prepared to jump in. In their view, because male and female are both necessary for procreation, the privileges of marriage should be available only to opposite-sex couples. In other countries, particularly those with federal political systems and strong judiciaries, such as Canada, South Africa, and the United States, the courts played a vital role. Bermuda thus became the first country to repeal same-sex marriage. For example, by the middle of the first decade of the s, a Eurobarometer poll carried out by the European Commission found that four-fifths of the citizens of the Netherlands felt that same-sex marriage should be legal throughout Europe; in a further seven countries Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Luxembourg , Spain, Germany , and the Czech Republic , a majority held a similar view. Officials in some smaller jurisdictions, notably San Francisco, joined the controversy in early by issuing marriage licenses in defiance of local prohibitions; these licenses were later found to be invalid. In one view, the purpose of marriage is to ensure successful procreation and child rearing. Many of these jurisdictions, as well as those that actively criminalize same-sex unions, contended that homosexuality and lesbianism are mental disorders and built their public policies on this premise. In all but two of those states, the rulings were stayed, although some of the states briefly performed same-sex marriages prior to their suspension. Cultures that openly accepted homosexuality, of which there were many, generally had nonmarital categories of partnership through which such bonds could be expressed and socially regulated. By the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the perspectives of one or more of the world religions— Buddhism , Hinduism , Judaism , Islam , and Christianity —and their associated civil practices were often invoked during national discussions of same-sex marriage. As the electorate in Maine simultaneously reversed its previous decision, the three states became the first in the country to approve same-sex marriage at the ballot box. Although a multiplicity of marriage practices once existed, conquering nations typically forced local cultures to conform to colonial belief and administrative systems. Proposition 8 subsequently was ruled unconstitutional in federal district court in August on the grounds that the prohibition of same-sex marriage violated the due process and equal protection clauses. In the Federal District Mexico City , separate from other Mexican jurisdictions, legalized same-sex marriage. Soon thereafter similar laws, generally using specific vocabulary e.
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